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Filtro utf8 non valido

Ho un file di testo in una codifica sconosciuta o mista. Voglio vedere le righe che contengono una sequenza di byte non valida UTF-8 (eseguendo il piping del file di testo in qualche programma). Allo stesso modo, voglio filtrare le righe valide UTF-8. In altre parole, sto cercando grep [notutf8].

Una soluzione ideale sarebbe portatile, breve e generalizzabile ad altre codifiche, ma se ritieni che il modo migliore sia cuocere in definizione di UTF-8 , vai avanti.

Se vuoi usare grep, puoi fare:

grep -axv '.*' file

nelle lingue UTF-8 per ottenere le righe che hanno almeno una sequenza UTF-8 non valida (funziona con GNU Grep).

36
vinc17

Penso che probabilmente vuoi iconv . Serve per la conversione tra set di codici e supporta un numero assurdo di formati. Ad esempio, per rimuovere qualsiasi cosa non valida in UTF-8 è possibile utilizzare:

iconv -c -t UTF-8 < input.txt > output.txt

Senza l'opzione -c segnalerà problemi nella conversione in stderr, quindi con la direzione del processo potresti salvare un elenco di questi. Un altro modo sarebbe quello di eliminare le cose non UTF8 e quindi

diff input.txt output.txt

per un elenco di dove sono state apportate modifiche.

33
frabjous

Modifica: ho corretto un errore di battitura nella regex. Aveva bisogno di un '\ x80` non \80.

La regex per filtrare i moduli UTF-8 non validi, per aderenza rigorosa a UTF-8, è la seguente

Perl -l -ne '/
 ^( ([\x00-\x7F])              # 1-byte pattern
   |([\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF])   # 2-byte pattern
   |((([\xE0][\xA0-\xBF])|([\xED][\x80-\x9F])|([\xE1-\xEC\xEE-\xEF][\x80-\xBF]))([\x80-\xBF])) # 3-byte pattern
   |((([\xF0][\x90-\xBF])|([\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF])|([\xF4][\x80-\x8F]))([\x80-\xBF]{2}))       # 4-byte pattern
  )*$ /x or print'

Output (di key lines.from Test 1):

Codepoint
=========  
00001000  Test=1 mode=strict               valid,invalid,fail=(1000,0,0)          
0000E000  Test=1 mode=strict               valid,invalid,fail=(D800,800,0)          
0010FFFF  mode=strict  test-return=(0,0)   valid,invalid,fail=(10F800,800,0)          

D. Come si creano i dati di test per testare una regex che filtra Unicode non valido?
UN. Crea il tuo algoritmo di test UTF-8 e infrange le sue regole ...
Catch-22 .. Ma allora come testare l'algoritmo di test?

Il regex, sopra, è stato testato (usando iconv come riferimento) per ogni valore intero da 0x00000 per 0x10FFFF .. Questo valore superiore è valore intero massimo di un punto di codice Unicode

Secondo questa wikipedia UTF-8 pagina ,.

  • UTF-8 codifica ciascuno dei 1.112.064 punti di codice nel set di caratteri Unicode, utilizzando da uno a quattro byte a 8 bit

Questo numero (1.112.064) corrisponde a un intervallo 0x000000 per 0x10F7FF, che è 0x0800 timido del valore intero massimo effettivo per il punto di codice Unicode più alto: 0x10FFFF

Questo blocco di numeri interi non è presente nello spettro dei codici codificati Unicode, a causa della necessità della codifica UTF-16 di andare oltre l'intento di progettazione originale tramite un sistema chiamato coppie surrogate . Un blocco di 0x0800 numeri interi sono stati riservati per essere utilizzati da UTF-16 .. Questo blocco si estende nell'intervallo0x00D800 per 0x00DFFF. Nessuno di questi parametri è un valore Unicode legale e quindi valori UTF-8 non validi.

In Test 1 , il regex è stato testato su ogni numero nell'intervallo di punti di codice Unicode e corrisponde esattamente ai risultati di iconv .. ie. 0x010F7FF valori validi e 0x000800 valori non validi.

Tuttavia, ora sorge il problema di, * In che modo regex gestisce il valore UTF-8 fuori portata; sopra 0x010FFFF (UTF-8 può estendersi a 6 byte, con un valore intero massimo di x7FFFFFFF ?
Per generare i valori * * non-Unicode UTF-8 byte necessari, ho usato il seguente comando:

  Perl -C -e 'print chr 0x'$hexUTF32BE

Per testare la loro validità (in qualche modo), ho usato Gilles' UTF-8 regex ...

  Perl -l -ne '/
   ^( [\000-\177]                 # 1-byte pattern
     |[\300-\337][\200-\277]      # 2-byte pattern
     |[\340-\357][\200-\277]{2}   # 3-byte pattern
     |[\360-\367][\200-\277]{3}   # 4-byte pattern
     |[\370-\373][\200-\277]{4}   # 5-byte pattern
     |[\374-\375][\200-\277]{5}   # 6-byte pattern
    )*$ /x or print'

L'output di 'Perl's print chr' corrisponde al filtraggio del regex di Gilles .. Uno rinforza la validità dell'altro .. Non posso usare iconv perché gestisce solo il sottoinsieme Standard Unicode valido del più ampio (originale) UTF-8 standard ...

I nunbers coinvolti sono piuttosto grandi, quindi ho testato top-of-range, bottom-of-range e diverse scansioni avanzando di incrementi come, 11111, 13579, 33333, 53441 ... I risultati corrispondono tutti, quindi ora non resta che testare la regex rispetto a questi valori fuori range fuori dallo stile UTF-8 (non valido per Unicode e quindi non valido anche per lo stesso UTF-8).


Ecco i moduli di test:

[[ "$(locale charmap)" != "UTF-8" ]] && { echo "ERROR: locale must be UTF-8, but it is $(locale charmap)"; exit 1; }

# Testing the UTF-8 regex
#
# Tests to check that the observed byte-ranges (above) have
#  been  accurately observed and included in the test code and final regex. 
# =========================================================================
: 2 bytes; B2=0 #  run-test=1   do-not-test=0
: 3 bytes; B3=0 #  run-test=1   do-not-test=0
: 4 bytes; B4=0 #  run-test=1   do-not-test=0 

:   regex; Rx=1 #  run-test=1   do-not-test=0

           ((strict=16)); mode[$strict]=strict # iconv -f UTF-16BE  then iconv -f UTF-32BE beyond 0xFFFF)
           ((   lax=32)); mode[$lax]=lax       # iconv -f UTF-32BE  only)

          # modebits=$strict
                  # UTF-8, in relation to UTF-16 has invalid values
                  # modebits=$strict automatically shifts to modebits=$lax
                  # when the tested integer exceeds 0xFFFF
          # modebits=$lax 
                  # UTF-8, in relation to UTF-32, has no restrictione


           # Test 1 Sequentially tests a range of Big-Endian integers
           #      * Unicode Codepoints are a subset ofBig-Endian integers            
           #        ( based on 'iconv' -f UTF-32BE -f UTF-8 )    
           # Note: strict UTF-8 has a few quirks because of UTF-16
                    #    Set modebits=16 to "strictly" test the low range

             Test=1; modebits=$strict
           # Test=2; modebits=$lax
           # Test=3
              mode3wlo=$(( 1*4)) # minimum chars * 4 ( '4' is for UTF-32BE )
              mode3whi=$((10*4)) # minimum chars * 4 ( '4' is for UTF-32BE )


#########################################################################  

# 1 byte  UTF-8 values: Nothing to do; no complexities.

#########################################################################

#  2 Byte  UTF-8 values:  Verifying that I've got the right range values.
if ((B2==1)) ; then  
  echo "# Test 2 bytes for Valid UTF-8 values: ie. values which are in range"
  # =========================================================================
  time \
  for d1 in {194..223} ;do
      #     bin       oct  hex  dec
      # lo  11000010  302   C2  194
      # hi  11011111  337   DF  223
      B2b1=$(printf "%0.2X" $d1)
      #
      for d2 in {128..191} ;do
          #     bin       oct  hex  dec
          # lo  10000000  200   80  128
          # hi  10111111  277   BF  191
          B2b2=$(printf "%0.2X" $d2)
          #
          echo -n "${B2b1}${B2b2}" |
            xxd -p -u -r  |
              iconv -f UTF-8 >/dev/null || { 
                echo "ERROR: Invalid UTF-8 found: ${B2b1}${B2b2}"; exit 20; }
          #
      done
  done
  echo

  # Now do a negated test.. This takes longer, because there are more values.
  echo "# Test 2 bytes for Invalid values: ie. values which are out of range"
  # =========================================================================
  # Note: 'iconv' will treat a leading  \x00-\x7F as a valid leading single,
  #   so this negated test primes the first UTF-8 byte with values starting at \x80
  time \
  for d1 in {128..193} {224..255} ;do 
 #for d1 in {128..194} {224..255} ;do # force a valid UTF-8 (needs $B2b2) 
      B2b1=$(printf "%0.2X" $d1)
      #
      for d2 in {0..127} {192..255} ;do
     #for d2 in {0..128} {192..255} ;do # force a valid UTF-8 (needs $B2b1)
          B2b2=$(printf "%0.2X" $d2)
          #
          echo -n "${B2b1}${B2b2}" |
            xxd -p -u -r |
              iconv -f UTF-8 2>/dev/null && { 
                echo "ERROR: VALID UTF-8 found: ${B2b1}${B2b2}"; exit 21; }
          #
      done
  done
  echo
fi

#########################################################################

#  3 Byte  UTF-8 values:  Verifying that I've got the right range values.
if ((B3==1)) ; then  
  echo "# Test 3 bytes for Valid UTF-8 values: ie. values which are in range"
  # ========================================================================
  time \
  for d1 in {224..239} ;do
      #     bin       oct  hex  dec
      # lo  11100000  340   E0  224
      # hi  11101111  357   EF  239
      B3b1=$(printf "%0.2X" $d1)
      #
      if   [[ $B3b1 == "E0" ]] ; then
          B3b2range="$(echo {160..191})"
          #     bin       oct  hex  dec  
          # lo  10100000  240   A0  160  
          # hi  10111111  277   BF  191
      Elif [[ $B3b1 == "ED" ]] ; then
          B3b2range="$(echo {128..159})"
          #     bin       oct  hex  dec  
          # lo  10000000  200   80  128  
          # hi  10011111  237   9F  159
      else
          B3b2range="$(echo {128..191})"
          #     bin       oct  hex  dec
          # lo  10000000  200   80  128
          # hi  10111111  277   BF  191
      fi
      # 
      for d2 in $B3b2range ;do
          B3b2=$(printf "%0.2X" $d2)
          echo "${B3b1} ${B3b2} xx"
          #
          for d3 in {128..191} ;do
              #     bin       oct  hex  dec
              # lo  10000000  200   80  128
              # hi  10111111  277   BF  191
              B3b3=$(printf "%0.2X" $d3)
              #
              echo -n "${B3b1}${B3b2}${B3b3}" |
                xxd -p -u -r  |
                  iconv -f UTF-8 >/dev/null || { 
                    echo "ERROR: Invalid UTF-8 found: ${B3b1}${B3b2}${B3b3}"; exit 30; }
              #
          done
      done
  done
  echo

  # Now do a negated test.. This takes longer, because there are more values.
  echo "# Test 3 bytes for Invalid values: ie. values which are out of range"
  # =========================================================================
  # Note: 'iconv' will treat a leading  \x00-\x7F as a valid leading single,
  #   so this negated test primes the first UTF-8 byte with values starting at \x80
  #
  # real     26m28.462s \ 
  # user     27m12.526s  | stepping by 2
  # sys      13m11.193s /
  #
  # real    239m00.836s \
  # user    225m11.108s  | stepping by 1
  # sys     120m00.538s /
  #
  time \
  for d1 in {128..223..1} {240..255..1} ;do 
 #for d1 in {128..224..1} {239..255..1} ;do # force a valid UTF-8 (needs $B2b2,$B3b3) 
      B3b1=$(printf "%0.2X" $d1)
      #
      if   [[ $B3b1 == "E0" ]] ; then
          B3b2range="$(echo {0..159..1} {192..255..1})"
         #B3b2range="$(> {192..255..1})" # force a valid UTF-8 (needs $B3b1,$B3b3)
      Elif [[ $B3b1 == "ED" ]] ; then
          B3b2range="$(echo {0..127..1} {160..255..1})"
         #B3b2range="$(echo {0..128..1} {160..255..1})" # force a valid UTF-8 (needs $B3b1,$B3b3)
      else
          B3b2range="$(echo {0..127..1} {192..255..1})"
         #B3b2range="$(echo {0..128..1} {192..255..1})" # force a valid UTF-8 (needs $B3b1,$B3b3)
      fi
      for d2 in $B3b2range ;do
          B3b2=$(printf "%0.2X" $d2)
          echo "${B3b1} ${B3b2} xx"
          #
          for d3 in {0..127..1} {192..255..1} ;do
         #for d3 in {0..128..1} {192..255..1} ;do # force a valid UTF-8 (needs $B2b1)
              B3b3=$(printf "%0.2X" $d3)
              #
              echo -n "${B3b1}${B3b2}${B3b3}" |
                xxd -p -u -r |
                  iconv -f UTF-8 2>/dev/null && { 
                    echo "ERROR: VALID UTF-8 found: ${B3b1}${B3b2}${B3b3}"; exit 31; }
              #
          done
      done
  done
  echo

fi

#########################################################################

#  Brute force testing in the Astral Plane will take a VERY LONG time..
#  Perhaps selective testing is more appropriate, now that the previous tests 
#     have panned out okay... 
#  
#  4 Byte  UTF-8 values:
if ((B4==1)) ; then  
  echo "# Test 4 bytes for Valid UTF-8 values: ie. values which are in range"
  # ==================================================================
  # real    58m18.531s \
  # user    56m44.317s  | 
  # sys     27m29.867s /
  time \
  for d1 in {240..244} ;do
      #     bin       oct  hex  dec
      # lo  11110000  360   F0  240
      # hi  11110100  364   F4  244  -- F4 encodes some values greater than 0x10FFFF;
      #                                    such a sequence is invalid.
      B4b1=$(printf "%0.2X" $d1)
      #
      if   [[ $B4b1 == "F0" ]] ; then
        B4b2range="$(echo {144..191})" ## f0 90 80 80  to  f0 bf bf bf
        #     bin       oct  hex  dec          010000  --  03FFFF 
        # lo  10010000  220   90  144  
        # hi  10111111  277   BF  191
        #                            
      Elif [[ $B4b1 == "F4" ]] ; then
        B4b2range="$(echo {128..143})" ## f4 80 80 80  to  f4 8f bf bf
        #     bin       oct  hex  dec          100000  --  10FFFF 
        # lo  10000000  200   80  128  
        # hi  10001111  217   8F  143  -- F4 encodes some values greater than 0x10FFFF;
        #                                    such a sequence is invalid.
      else
        B4b2range="$(echo {128..191})" ## fx 80 80 80  to  f3 bf bf bf
        #     bin       oct  hex  dec          0C0000  --  0FFFFF
        # lo  10000000  200   80  128          0A0000
        # hi  10111111  277   BF  191
      fi
      #
      for d2 in $B4b2range ;do
          B4b2=$(printf "%0.2X" $d2)
          #
          for d3 in {128..191} ;do
              #     bin       oct  hex  dec
              # lo  10000000  200   80  128
              # hi  10111111  277   BF  191
              B4b3=$(printf "%0.2X" $d3)
              echo "${B4b1} ${B4b2} ${B4b3} xx"
              #
              for d4 in {128..191} ;do
                  #     bin       oct  hex  dec
                  # lo  10000000  200   80  128
                  # hi  10111111  277   BF  191
                  B4b4=$(printf "%0.2X" $d4)
                  #
                  echo -n "${B4b1}${B4b2}${B4b3}${B4b4}" |
                    xxd -p -u -r  |
                      iconv -f UTF-8 >/dev/null || { 
                        echo "ERROR: Invalid UTF-8 found: ${B4b1}${B4b2}${B4b3}${B4b4}"; exit 40; }
                  #
              done
          done
      done
  done
  echo "# Test 4 bytes for Valid UTF-8 values: END"
  echo
fi

########################################################################
# There is no test (yet) for negated range values in the astral plane. #  
#                           (all negated range values must be invalid) #
#  I won't bother; This was mainly for me to ge the general feel of    #     
#   the tests, and the final test below should flush anything out..    #
# Traversing the intire UTF-8 range takes quite a while...             #
#   so no need to do it twice (albeit in a slightly different manner)  #
########################################################################

################################
### The construction of:    ####
###  The Regular Expression ####
###      (de-construction?) ####
################################

#     BYTE 1                BYTE 2       BYTE 3      BYTE 4 
# 1: [\x00-\x7F]
#    ===========
#    ([\x00-\x7F])
#
# 2: [\xC2-\xDF]           [\x80-\xBF]
#    =================================
#    ([\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF])
# 
# 3: [\xE0]                [\xA0-\xBF]  [\x80-\xBF]   
#    [\xED]                [\x80-\x9F]  [\x80-\xBF]
#    [\xE1-\xEC\xEE-\xEF]  [\x80-\xBF]  [\x80-\xBF]
#    ==============================================
#    ((([\xE0][\xA0-\xBF])|([\xED][\x80-\x9F])|([\xE1-\xEC\xEE-\xEF][\x80-\xBF]))([\x80-\xBF]))
#
# 4  [\xF0]                [\x90-\xBF]  [\x80-\xBF]  [\x80-\xBF]    
#    [\xF1-\xF3]           [\x80-\xBF]  [\x80-\xBF]  [\x80-\xBF]
#    [\xF4]                [\x80-\x8F]  [\x80-\xBF]  [\x80-\xBF]
#    ===========================================================
#    ((([\xF0][\x90-\xBF])|([\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF])|([\xF4][\x80-\x8F]))([\x80-\xBF]{2}))
#
# The final regex
# ===============
# 1-4:  (([\x00-\x7F])|([\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF])|((([\xE0][\xA0-\xBF])|([\xED][\x80-\x9F])|([\xE1-\xEC\xEE-\xEF][\x80-\xBF]))([\x80-\xBF]))|((([\xF0][\x90-\xBF])|([\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF])|([\xF4][\x80-\x8F]))([\x80-\xBF]{2})))
# 4-1:  (((([\xF0][\x90-\xBF])|([\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF])|([\xF4][\x80-\x8F]))([\x80-\xBF]{2}))|((([\xE0][\xA0-\xBF])|([\xED][\x80-\x9F])|([\xE1-\xEC\xEE-\xEF][\x80-\xBF]))([\x80-\xBF]))|([\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF])|([\x00-\x7F]))


#######################################################################
#  The final Test; for a single character (multi chars to follow)     #  
#   Compare the return code of 'iconv' against the 'regex'            #
#   for the full range of 0x000000 to 0x10FFFF                        #
#                                                                     #     
#  Note; this script has 3 modes:                                     #
#        Run this test TWICE, set each mode Manually!                 #     
#                                                                     #     
#     1. Sequentially test every value from 0x000000 to 0x10FFFF      #     
#     2. Throw a spanner into the works! Force random byte patterns   #     
#     2. Throw a spanner into the works! Force random longer strings  #     
#        ==============================                               #     
#                                                                     #     
#  Note: The purpose of this routine is to determine if there is any  #
#        difference how 'iconv' and 'regex' handle the same data      #  
#                                                                     #     
#######################################################################
if ((Rx==1)) ; then
  # real    191m34.826s
  # user    158m24.114s
  # sys      83m10.676s
  time { 
  invalCt=0
  validCt=0
   failCt=0
  decBeg=$((0x00110000)) # incement by decimal integer
  decMax=$((0x7FFFFFFF)) # incement by decimal integer
  # 
  for ((CPDec=decBeg;CPDec<=decMax;CPDec+=13247)) ;do
      ((D==1)) && echo "=========================================================="
      #
      # Convert decimal integer '$CPDec' to Hex-digits; 6-long  (dec2hex)
      hexUTF32BE=$(printf '%0.8X\n' $CPDec)  # hexUTF32BE

      # progress count  
      if (((CPDec%$((0x1000)))==0)) ;then
          ((Test>2)) && echo
          echo "$hexUTF32BE  Test=$Test mode=${mode[$modebits]}            "
      fi
      if   ((Test==1 || Test==2 ))
      then # Test 1. Sequentially test every value from 0x000000 to 0x10FFFF
          #
          if   ((Test==2)) ; then
              bits=32
              UTF8="$( Perl -C -e 'print chr 0x'$hexUTF32BE |
                Perl -l -ne '/^(  [\000-\177]
                                | [\300-\337][\200-\277]
                                | [\340-\357][\200-\277]{2}
                                | [\360-\367][\200-\277]{3}
                                | [\370-\373][\200-\277]{4}
                                | [\374-\375][\200-\277]{5}
                               )*$/x and print' |xxd -p )"
              UTF8="${UTF8%0a}"
              [[ -n "$UTF8" ]] \
                    && rcIco32=0 || rcIco32=1
                       rcIco16=

          Elif ((modebits==strict && CPDec<=$((0xFFFF)))) ;then
              bits=16
              UTF8="$( echo -n "${hexUTF32BE:4}" |
                xxd -p -u -r |
                  iconv -f UTF-16BE -t UTF-8 2>/dev/null)" \
                    && rcIco16=0 || rcIco16=1  
                       rcIco32=
          else
              bits=32
              UTF8="$( echo -n "$hexUTF32BE" |
                xxd -p -u -r |
                  iconv -f UTF-32BE -t UTF-8 2>/dev/null)" \
                    && rcIco32=0 || rcIco32=1
                       rcIco16=
          fi
          # echo "1 mode=${mode[$modebits]}-$bits  rcIconv: (${rcIco16},${rcIco32})  $hexUTF32BE "
          #
          #
          #
          if ((${rcIco16}${rcIco32}!=0)) ;then
              # 'iconv -f UTF-16BE' failed produce a reliable UTF-8
              if ((bits==16)) ;then
                  ((D==1)) &&           echo "bits-$bits rcIconv: error    $hexUTF32BE .. 'strict' failed, now trying 'lax'"
                  #  iconv failed to create a  'srict' UTF-8 so   
                  #      try UTF-32BE to get a   'lax' UTF-8 pattern    
                  UTF8="$( echo -n "$hexUTF32BE" |
                    xxd -p -u -r |
                      iconv -f UTF-32BE -t UTF-8 2>/dev/null)" \
                        && rcIco32=0 || rcIco32=1
                  #echo "2 mode=${mode[$modebits]}-$bits  rcIconv: (${rcIco16},${rcIco32})  $hexUTF32BE "
                  if ((rcIco32!=0)) ;then
                      ((D==1)) &&               echo -n "bits-$bits rcIconv: Cannot gen UTF-8 for: $hexUTF32BE"
                      rcIco32=1
                  fi
              fi
          fi
          # echo "3 mode=${mode[$modebits]}-$bits  rcIconv: (${rcIco16},${rcIco32})  $hexUTF32BE "
          #
          #
          #
          if ((rcIco16==0 || rcIco32==0)) ;then
              # 'strict(16)' OR 'lax(32)'... 'iconv' managed to generate a UTF-8 pattern  
                  ((D==1)) &&       echo -n "bits-$bits rcIconv: pattern* $hexUTF32BE"
                  ((D==1)) &&       if [[ $bits == "16" && $rcIco32 == "0" ]] ;then 
                  echo " .. 'lax' UTF-8 produced a pattern"
              else
                  echo
              fi
               # regex test
              if ((modebits==strict)) ;then
                 #rxOut="$(echo -n "$UTF8" |Perl -l -ne '/^(([\x00-\x7F])|([\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF])|((([\xE0][\xA0-\xBF])|([\xED][\x80-\x9F])|([\xE1-\xEC\xEE-\xEF][\x80-\xBF]))([\x80-\xBF]))|((([\xF0][\x90-\xBF])|([\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF])|([\xF4][\x80-\x8F]))([\x80-\xBF]{2})))*$/ or print' )"
                                     rxOut="$(echo -n "$UTF8" |
                  Perl -l -ne '/^( ([\x00-\x7F])             # 1-byte pattern
                                  |([\xC2-\xDF][\x80-\xBF])  # 2-byte pattern
                                  |((([\xE0][\xA0-\xBF])|([\xED][\x80-\x9F])|([\xE1-\xEC\xEE-\xEF][\x80-\xBF]))([\x80-\xBF]))  # 3-byte pattern
                                  |((([\xF0][\x90-\xBF])|([\xF1-\xF3][\x80-\xBF])|([\xF4][\x80-\x8F]))([\x80-\xBF]{2}))        # 4-byte pattern
                                 )*$ /x or print' )"
               else
                  if ((Test==2)) ;then
                      rx="$(echo -n "$UTF8" |Perl -l -ne '/^([\000-\177]|[\300-\337][\200-\277]|[\340-\357][\200-\277]{2}|[\360-\367][\200-\277]{3}|[\370-\373][\200-\277]{4}|[\374-\375][\200-\277]{5})*$/ and print')"
                      [[ "$UTF8" != "$rx" ]] && rxOut="$UTF8" || rxOut=
                      rx="$(echo -n "$rx" |sed -e "s/\(..\)/\1 /g")"  
                  else 
                      rxOut="$(echo -n "$UTF8" |Perl -l -ne '/^([\000-\177]|[\300-\337][\200-\277]|[\340-\357][\200-\277]{2}|[\360-\367][\200-\277]{3}|[\370-\373][\200-\277]{4}|[\374-\375][\200-\277]{5})*$/ or print' )"
                  fi
              fi
              if [[ "$rxOut" == "" ]] ;then
                ((D==1)) &&           echo "        rcRegex: ok"
                  rcRegex=0
              else
                  ((D==1)) &&           echo -n "bits-$bits rcRegex: error    $hexUTF32BE .. 'strict' failed,"
                  ((D==1)) &&           if [[  "12" == *$Test* ]] ;then 
                                            echo # "  (codepoint) Test $Test" 
                                        else
                                            echo
                                        fi
                  rcRegex=1
              fi
          fi
          #
      Elif [[ $Test == 2 ]]
      then # Test 2. Throw a randomizing spanner into the works! 
          #          Then test the  arbitary bytes ASIS
          #
          hexLineRand="$(echo -n "$hexUTF32BE" |
            sed -re "s/(.)(.)(.)(.)(.)(.)(.)(.)/\1\n\2\n\3\n\4\n\5\n\6\n\7\n\8/" |
              sort -R |
                tr -d '\n')"
          # 
      Elif [[ $Test == 3 ]]
      then # Test 3. Test single UTF-16BE bytes in the range 0x00000000 to 0x7FFFFFFF
          #
          echo "Test 3 is not properly implemented yet.. Exiting"
          exit 99 
      else
          echo "ERROR: Invalid mode"
          exit
      fi
      #
      #
      if ((Test==1 || Test=2)) ;then
          if ((modebits==strict && CPDec<=$((0xFFFF)))) ;then
              ((rcIconv=rcIco16))
          else
              ((rcIconv=rcIco32))
          fi
          if ((rcRegex!=rcIconv)) ;then
              [[ $Test != 1 ]] && echo
              if ((rcRegex==1)) ;then
                  echo "ERROR: 'regex' ok, but NOT 'iconv': ${hexUTF32BE} "
              else
                  echo "ERROR: 'iconv' ok, but NOT 'regex': ${hexUTF32BE} "
              fi
              ((failCt++));
          Elif ((rcRegex!=0)) ;then
            # ((invalCt++)); echo -ne "$hexUTF32BE  exit-codes $${rcIco16}${rcIco32}=,$rcRegex\t: $(printf "%0.8X\n" $invalCt)\t$hexLine$(printf "%$(((mode3whi*2)-${#hexLine}))s")\r"
              ((invalCt++)) 
          else
              ((validCt++)) 
          fi
          if   ((Test==1)) ;then
              echo -ne "$hexUTF32BE "    "mode=${mode[$modebits]}  test-return=($rcIconv,$rcRegex)   valid,invalid,fail=($(printf "%X" $validCt),$(printf "%X" $invalCt),$(printf "%X" $failCt))          \r"
          else 
              echo -ne "$hexUTF32BE $rx mode=${mode[$modebits]} test-return=($rcIconv,$rcRegex)  val,inval,fail=($(printf "%X" $validCt),$(printf "%X" $invalCt),$(printf "%X" $failCt))\r"
          fi
      fi
  done
  } # End time
fi
exit
21
Peter.O

Trovo uconv (in icu-devtools pacchetto in Debian) utile per ispezionare i dati UTF-8:

$ print '\\xE9 \xe9 \u20ac \ud800\udc00 \U110000' |
    uconv --callback escape-c -t us
\xE9 \xE9 \u20ac \xED\xA0\x80\xED\xB0\x80 \xF4\x90\x80\x80

(Il \xs aiuta a individuare i caratteri non validi (ad eccezione dei falsi positivi introdotti volontariamente con un valore letterale \xE9 sopra)).

(molti altri usi piacevoli).

7

Python ha una funzione unicode integrata dalla versione 2.0.

#!/usr/bin/env python2
import sys
for line in sys.stdin:
    try:
        unicode(line, 'utf-8')
    except UnicodeDecodeError:
        sys.stdout.write(line)

In Python 3, unicode è stato piegato in str . Deve essere passato un tipo byte oggetto , qui gli oggetti buffer sottostanti per descrittori standard .

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import sys
for line in sys.stdin.buffer:
    try:
        str(line, 'utf-8')
    except UnicodeDecodeError:
        sys.stdout.buffer.write(line)

Ho riscontrato un problema simile (dettaglio nella sezione "Contesto") e sono arrivato con la seguente soluzione ftfy_line_by_line.py :

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import ftfy, sys
with open(sys.argv[1], mode='rt', encoding='utf8', errors='replace') as f:
  for line in f:
    sys.stdout.buffer.write(ftfy.fix_text(line).encode('utf8', 'replace'))
    #print(ftfy.fix_text(line).rstrip().decode(encoding="utf-8", errors="replace"))

Utilizzando codifica + sostituisci + ftfy per la correzione automatica Mojibake e altre correzioni.

Contesto

Ho raccolto> 10GiB CSV di metadati del filesystem di base usando il seguente script gen_basic_files_metadata.csv.sh , eseguendo essenzialmente:

find "${path}" -type f -exec stat --format="%i,%Y,%s,${hostname},%m,%n" "{}" \;

Il problema che avevo con codifica incoerente dei nomi dei file tra i file system, causando UnicodeDecodeError durante l'elaborazione ulteriore con python ( csvsql per essere più specifici).

Pertanto ho applicato sopra lo script ftfy e ci sono voluti

Nota ftfy è piuttosto lento, l'elaborazione di quei> 10GiB ha richiesto:

real    147m35.182s
user    146m14.329s
sys     2m8.713s

mentre sha256sum per il confronto:

real    6m28.897s
user    1m9.273s
sys     0m6.210s

su CPU Intel (R) Core (TM) i7-3520M @ 2,90GHz + 16GiB RAM (e dati su disco esterno)

1